Day 2 :
Chevron Industries, UK
Time : 10:00-10:45
Giampaolo Crepaldi is a CEO and Chairman of the Board of Chevron Industries since the very beginning, when it was resolved to open its operational unit in the UK, to develop the alternative green energy aspects and provide the third generation of the TTT Technology and several other IPRs. His background begins in the early 80s, when he was a young textile engineer working as a Technical Director with one of the biggest technology fibers of that time in Piedmont, Italy up to 1989. Up to 1991, he developed new alternative fibers technologies with Universal Insulating, and up to 1994 he developed international experiences in the high technologies field working with Belgian and French companies as a High Specilized Process and Innovation Consultant. From 1994 to 1996, he was with Tecnotex, then up to 2000 he was with Tecno Europa to develop new ceramic, silica and quartz fibers with new technologies, from 2000 to 2006. He has always worked in projects liaisons, from chemical to textile, to mechanic developments. He is among inventors of processes, machinery, and equipment, generally devoted to the improvement of standard industrial processes or to create brand new ones based on the principle of improving the environmental friendly impact as well as products quality.
The composite materials are born to obtain a good balance between weight, strength and ductility. In addition, the processing systems and new methods of reuse made it more and more convenient. Now we are bringing the extreme use of the composite with the production of advanced ceramic composites Carbon/Carbon and Carbon/SiC. These products have a temperature resistance at about 3000°C and the opposite up to -200°C. It is a monolith that does not deform or melt when subjected to thermal shock as is the case for metals. Furthermore, in addition to being much more hard and non-deformable resistant they are much lighter than steel or titanium. Chevron industries have developed a number of products in Carbon/Carbon with complete proposal of HT items in the world market with the brand name Bluesteel™, Dura™, Ultimate™ and Quantum™. Our company is also sensitive to weight reduction in the cost of manufacture of the components that are the driving forces for the new composite that must be developed by the cost-effective process. In fact, we use a process with Triple Thermal Treatment (exclusive plasma combined named TTT® IPR) that uses the combination of microwave/infrared reducing energy consumption by 85%, CO2 emissions by 87% below the traditional method and with faster processing times 40% (here under one of the operating diagram of a Chemical Reactor CVI/CVD with TTT® methodology).
- Sessions: Advanced Ceramic Materials | Advanced Materials and Technologies | Functional Ceramics and Inorganics | Ceramics in Biology and Medicine
University of Limoges, France
University of Limoges, France
Title: Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, a sustainable approach to product ceramics and composites
Time : 11:05-11:35
Françoise Nardou, Professor Emeritus of the University of Limoges (France), is an expert in evaluation works on processing of advanced materials in correlation with their properties. The Laboratory of Science of Ceramic Processing and Surface Treatments (SPCTS) bring together personnel from the CNRS, the University of Limoges (UL) and the French National Engineering College of Industrial Ceramics (ENSCI).
Statement of the Problem: Requirement to develop sustainable products is one of the key challenges faced by industry in the 21st century. Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis (SHS) is a set of highly exothermic reactions that, once initiated by a low external energy input are able to self-sustain in the form of a wave (or propagation front). More than 300 different materials and some of them on an industrial scale have been developed with this synthesis process. The SHS synthesis of materials from powdered mixtures has a number of advantages over the more usual methods. Because of its intrinsic properties, it has a low energy cost (practically zero in a local initiation), a short processing time and a reduced equipment. The high temperatures involved allow the removal of impurities which leads to the production of very pure products. Due to high thermal gradients, this process also offers the possibility of synthesizing metastable or complex phases such as composition gradient materials. Only few SHS products are manufactured by enterprises because of the difficulties to monitor the process.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: In order to monitor the SHS reaction, research projects about mechanisms of the reaction and the influence of many parameters are engaged on the development of this synthesis process. We propose to present results obtained with two different types of SHS reaction: (a) SHS of zirconia via the following exothermic reaction: Zr + O2 → ZrO2; (b) SHS of dense intermetallic-based composite via the solid/solid reaction: Ni + Al → NiAl; (c) SHS of porous mullite via the solid/solid reaction kaolinite + Al + Mg → mullite.
Conclusion & Significance: Thus, an approach on all the methods (thermal explosion and local initiation) and the different types of SHS reaction (solid/solid and solid/gas) will show the difficulties to manufacture by SHS the three types of materials (zirconia, intermetallic-based composite reinforced by zirconia particles, and mullite-based materials).
Seiki Chiba was Executive Director for Advanced R&D Project Development, Stanford Research Institute (SRI International). He served on SRI for 20 years. He was supervising advanced R&D programs including Japanese Government projects. Now, he is CEO of Chiba Science Institute. He is the author or coauthor of more than 300 publications in various areas including artificial muscle actuators & generators, hydrogen safety, and high temperature membranes for hydrogen production. He has a PhD in Metallurgy & Material Science from the University of Wales (Britain). He received IAAM Medal for outstanding contribution in the field of Advanced Material Science and Technology.
Soft transducers have many features that are desirable for various devices. An especially attractive of soft transducer is dielectric elastomer. Dielectric Elastomer (DE) is a relatively new transducer technology uses rubberlike elastomers as actuator and sensor materials. DE actuator has fast speed of response, with a high strain rate. DE actuator having only 0.1 g of DE materials can lift the weight of 2 kg, using carbon system electrodes. DE can also be compliant 2D and 3D sensors. The use of DE actuator in the reverse mode, in which deformation of the elastomer by external mechanical work is used to generate electrical energy, has been gaining more attention (see Fig. 1). DE has shown considerable promise for harvesting energy from environmental sources such as ocean waves, wind, water streams including Karman vortices, solar heat, or human motion in our recent study. We also found that DE sensors with the generators could be useful for remote monitoring and patient treatment. Even in primary industries like agriculture, fishery and forestry, IoT using wireless networks is being introduced to increase productivity and value. These systems are often used outdoors, and the supply of electricity is a major issue in their design. Because DE can generate electricity from such a variety of energy sources, it can be used to power DE sensor systems. The combination of DE power-generating systems with various DE sensing systems will also make it possible to conduct sensing on a global scale, and may even make a significant contribution to the creation of systems that will protect human lives from various disease, natural disasters, or emergencies. DE has moved now from the research and development stage to the commercial domain with research and development on practical applications, and furthermore to the mass production stage.
Figure 1: Operating principle of dielectric elastomer power generation (DEG); the DEG is basically a stretchable capacitor. If a charge is applied to the DEG in the stretched state then work done by the contracting elastomer is converted into electrical energy (as illustrated by the voltage across the resistor in the right illustration).
Time : 12:05-12:35
Ana Sampaio holds a Master’s in Chemical Engineering from Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto (FEUP). Currently, she is working as Researcher of the Polymers Team in main area of Functional Materials and Solutions at CeNTI. Her work has focused on the research and development of new functional materials (thermal management and thermal comfort; liquid and stain repellence; cleanability; waterproof, breathability and moisture management; scratch and abrasion resistance; anti-UV and IR-reflective properties; among others) for application in different areas and industries. She has skills and expertise in development of surface treatments, polymeric composites and multilayer structures, as well as in several coating technologies, including ultrasonic deposition and UV-curing.
Ceramic tiles are known for their intrinsic properties, such as high durability, water and chemical resistance and easy maintenance. However, for applications in warm residential areas (e.g. living rooms, bedrooms), or sun-exposed areas (e.g. areas surrounding pools), users generally choose materials with improved performance in terms of thermal comfort, such as wood tiles. Bearing in mind this limitation, CeNTI and Revigrés joined forces to improve the performance of ceramic tiles at the thermal comfort level, with the main objective of combining technical properties, design and comfort. The work and developments carried out in the scope of Revifeel Plus project allowed to improve the ceramic tiles thermal comfort performance (temperature, sensation to the touch) suitable for flooring applications, namely for indoor (REVIFEEL WARMUP and REVIFEEL HEATSYSTEM) and outdoor applications (REVIFEEL COOLDOWN). From the project developments, three distinct and complementary technological solutions were achieved:
• REVIFEEL WARMUP: Ceramic floor tiles with an innovative surface treatment that reduces the sensation of cold to the touch in indoor residential applications.
• REVIFEEL COOLDOWN: Ceramic tiles with IR-reflective properties resulting from the direct additivation of ceramic raw materials during the tiles production. This technological solution aims to eliminate the sensation of excessive heat given off by ceramic surfaces due to exposure to solar radiation.
• REVIFEEL HEATSYSTEM: Ceramic tiles with an integrated heating system, a solution that is highly efficient, easy to install and maintain.
Universidad del SinÃº, Colombia
Title: Magnesium and platinum doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles as multifunctional biocompatible-bactericidal composites
Time : 12:35-13:05
B.S. in Chemistry, Universidad de Córdoba (2004); M.Sc. Universidad Nacional de Colombia (2009); Ph.D. University of Seville (2016); Colombian Young investigator research award; Junta de Andalucía predoctoral fellow; Graduate student visitor at Cambridge University; steem2 Award for transnational access to Graz University of Technology; Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Universidad del Sinú (2016-present)
Nanotechnology and materials science can be combined to develop new devices with intrinsic antimicrobial properties. For bactericidal effects, alternatives such as the use of metal nanoparticles (MNPs), metal oxides and metal phosphates have been studied. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) have received much recent scientific attention however to reach antibacterial effects similar to that observed for silver oxide nanoparticles (Ag2O) NPs. The purpose of this research is to produce multifunctional biocompatible-antimicrobial nanocomposites made of hydroxyapatite doped with magnesium and platinum (HA/Mg/PtNPs) by using a solvothermal method. For synthesis of targeted nanocomposites Ca(NO3)2.4H2O(0.5 M); (NH4)2HPO4 (0.3 M); MgCl2.6H2O (0.05 M) and PtCl4 (0.025 M) were used in solutions adjusted to pH 11. Next, mixtures were added slowly into water in oil emulsion of cyclohexane with a suitable stoichiometric ratio (surfactant/cosurfactant) of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and polyethylene glycol 600. The milk suspension was heated in a hydrothermal reactor for 12 h at 170°C (16 bar). After that, the obtained precipitate was dried at 60°C for 14 h and the resultant material was calcined at 600°C for 2 h. Antibacterial activity of the as-synthesized nanopowders was tested by the standard agar disk-diffusion method. Solutions of nanopowders were tested against bacterial suspensions (E.coli – S. aureus) with a turbidity of 0.5. It was found that hydroxyapatite doped was successful synthetized by solvothermal method. FTIR analysis of HA/Mg nanoparticles showed broader spectra compared to pure HA. The crystallite size of HA/Mg nanoparticles was also lower than that to pure HA. Further, results of antibacterial activity test showed that HA/Mg/Pt nanoparticles are resistant material against Gram negative bacteria. Interestingly, it was found that the stoichiometric surfactant/cosurfactant ratio used affects the size and morphology of HA/Mg/Pt nanoparticles as well as the corresponding antibacterial activity. These results point to HA/Mg/Pt nanoparticles can be used as antimicrobial agent.